Seagreens® Information Service  0845-0640040 / +44-1444-400403
Research references (numbers found in all media and the Practitioner Healthcare Summary)

1P. Pitchford, Healing with Whole Foods, Revised Edition, North Atlantic Books, 1993.
2Customer letter, Cheshire, 1999.
3Dr P D’Adamo, The Eat Right Diet, Century, London 1998, p273. ISBN 0712677844 and Eat Right for Blood Type O, Penguin Books 2002, p58. Website (We understand that in his first book in the early 1990s D’Adamo emphasised Fucus vesiculosis because he found this species in Ireland, and in later books he referred to the broader Wrack seaweed varieties as being similarly beneficial. Seagreens® Food Capsules and Food Granules contain a unique mix of 3 wild Wrack species: Ascophyllum, Fucus, and Pelvetia.)
4H. Aihara, Acid and Alkaline, Ohsawa Macrobiotic Foundation, 1986. ISBN 091886044X
5M. D. Guiry & G. Blunden, European Seaweed Resources: Uses & Potential, Wiley, 1991. ISBN 0471929476
6Samantha Christie BSc, DipION, Dietary surveys reveal serious micronutrient deficiencies, The Nutrition Practitioner, February 1999.
7Daily Mail, March 2001.
8Leslie Kenton, The New Raw Energy, Vermilion (Random House), London 1994, p181.
9P. Westcott, Thyroid Problems, Thorsons Health, 1995. ISBN 0 7225 3164 8
10J. Carper, The Food Pharmacy, Simon & Schuster, 1989. ISBN 0 671 71502 X
11I. Pera, in United States Patent 4775525, 1988 and D. M. Lynch, Appelbaum and Benjamin (Warner-Lambert) in United States Patent 4855128, 1989, U. S. Patent Office.
12Trace Elements in Human Nutrition & Health, WHO, 1996. ISBN 92 4 156173 4
13MAFF, Manual of Nutrition, HMSO, 1995. p50. ISBN 0 11 242991 2
14Reported in the Daily Mail, March 2001.
15J. L. Rolinson, The Secret Ingredients, Cross Media, 2001.
16J. Teas, M. L. Harbison, and R. S. Gelman, Dietary Seaweed (Laminaria) and Mammary Carcinogenesis, Cancer Research 44:2758-61, 1984.
17I. Yamamoto et al., Antitumour Effect of Seaweeds, Japanese Journal of Experimental Medicine 44:543-46, 1974.
18N. Iritani and S. Nogi, Effects of Spinach and Wakame in Cholesterol Turnover, Atherosclerosis 15:87-92, 1972.
19O. H. McConnell in H. A. Hoppe et al., Marine Algæ in Pharmaceutical Science, DeGruyter, New York 1979.
20Y. Tanaka et al., The Binding of Lead by a Pectic Polyelectrolyte, Environmental Research 14:128-140, 1977.
21S. C. Skoryna, Y. Tanaka et al., Prevention of Gastrointestinal Absorption of Excessive Trace Elements Intake, Trace Substances in Environmental Health VI, Symposium, (D. D. Hemphill, Ed.), University of Missouri, Columbia, 1973.
22Y. Tanaka et al., Studies on Inhibition of Intestinal Absorption of Radioactive Strontium, Canadian Medical Association Journal 99:169-75, 1968.
23S. C. Skoryna et al., Studies on Inhibition of Intestinal Absorption of Radioactive Strontium, Canadian Medical Association Journel 91:285-88, 1964.
24M. Bradford, Cooking with Sea Vegetables, The Natural Cookery School, 1998.
25A. Gustavsson, Lund University, 1996.
26S. Funayama et al., Hypotensive Principle of Laminaria and Allied Seaweeds, Journal of Medicinal Plant Research 41(1):29-33, 1981.
27Y. Yamori et al., Dietary Prevention of Stroke and Its Mechanisms in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypetensive Rats - Preventive Effect of Dietary Fibre and Palmitloleic Acid, Journal Hypertens 4(3):S449-S452, 1986.
28J. Levenson, Menace in the Mouth?, What Doctors Don’t Tell You Ltd, London, 2000 (paperback available from Oceans of Goodness tel 0845-0640040).
29D. Riou, S. Colliec-Jouault, D. Pinczon du Sel, S. Bosch, S. Siavoshian, V. Le Bert, C. Tomasoni, C. Sinquin, P. Durand, C. Roussakis, Antitumour and Antiproliferative Effects of a Fucan Extracted from Ascophyllum Nodosum Against a Non-small-cell Bronchopulmonary Carcinoma Line, PMID:8702239, UI:96273150, European Journal Hæmatology, Jan; 54(1):27-33, 1995
3018th Annual Conference of the Carbohydrate Symposium (19-21/08); 69th Annual Proceedings of the Japanese Biochemical Society (26-30/08); 55th Annual Proceedings of the Japanese Cancer Society (10.12/10)1996.
31J. Teas, The Dietary Intake of Laminaria a Brown Seaweed and Breast Cancer Prevention, PMID:6302638, UI:83194310.
32J. Teas, M. L. Harbison, R. S. Gelman, Dietary Seaweed (Laminaria) and Mammary Carcinogenesis in Rats, PMID:6426785, UI:84205434, Cellular Biology and Toxicoly, Feb; 13(2):95-102, 1997.
33S. Soeda, S. Ishida, H. Shimeno, A. Nagamatsu, Inhibitory Effect of Oversulfated Fucoidan on Invasion Through Reconstituted Basement Membrane by Murine Lewis Lung Carcinoma, PMID:7829400, UI:95130424, Cancer Letters, September 30; 85(1):133-138, 1994.
34W. Roszkowski, J. Beuth, H. L. Ko, G. Uhlenbruck, G. Pulverer, Blocking of Lectin-like Adhesion Molecules on Pulmonary Cells Inhibits Lung Sarcoma L-1 Colonization in BALB/c-mice, PMID:2737266, UI:89289934, Human Pathology, April; 20(4):352-360, 1989.
35K. Kayser, H. J. Gabius, T. Ciesiolka, W. Ebert, S. Bach, Histopathologic Evaluation of Application of Labelled Neoglycoproteins in Primary Bronchus Carcinoma, PMID: 2467870, UI:89197199, Cancer Research, June 15; 48(12):3367-3373, 1988.
36E. Furusawa, S. Furusawa, Anticancer Potential of a Dietary Seaweed Extract (Crude Polysaccharide) on Lewis Lung Carcinoma in Comparison with Chemical Immunomodulators and on Cyclosporine-accelerated AKR Leukemia, PMID:2476696, UI:89385425, Cancer Letters, February; 30(2):125-131, 1986.
37T. A. Read, V. Stensvaag, H. Vindenes, E. Ulvestad, R. Bjerkvig, F. Thorsen, Cells Encapsulated in Alginate: a Potential System for Delivery of Recombinant Proteins to Malignant Brain Tumours, PMID:10571425, UI:20036203, Oncology, 46(5):343-348, 1989.
38G. Csanaky, J. A. Vass, I. Ocsovszki, J. Milosevits, A. Szomor, M. Schmelczer, Changes in Adhesion Molecule Expression and Function in B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukæmia After In Vitro Interferon-alpha Stimulation, PMID:7532138, UI:95163724, Japanese Journal of Cancer Research, November; 85(11):1144-1150, 1994.
39B. S. Reddy, S. Numoto, C. I. Choi, Effect of Dietary Laminaria Angustata (brown seaweed) on Azoxymethane-induced Intestinal Carcinogenesis in male F344 rats, PMID:4070010, UI:86067333, Mutation Research, July; 127(2):113-118, 1984.
40H. Harada, T. Noro, Y. Kamei, Selective Antitumour Activity In Vitro From Marine Algæ from Japan Coasts, Anticancer Research, May-June; 16(3A):1213-1218, 1996.
41I. Yamamoto, H. Maruyama, M. Takahashi, K. Komiyama, The Effect of Dietary or Intraperitoneally Injected Seawed Preparations on the Growth of Sarcoma-180 Cells Subcutaneously Implanted Into Mice, PMID:3955535, UI:86161437, Radiats Biol Radioecol, March-April; 34(2):236-239, 1999.
42S. Soeda, S. Ishida, O. Honda, H. Shimeno, A. Nagamatsu, Aminated Fucoidan Promotes the Invasion of 3LL Cells Through Reconstituted Basement Membrane: Its Possible Machanism of Action, PMID:7923097, UI:95007484, Anticancer Research, November-December; 13(6A):2045-2052, 1993.
43M. K. Steuer, H. J. Gabius, A. Bardosi, R. Matthias, Histochemical Identification of Endogenous Lectins Using Labelled Neoglycoproteins in Human Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Experientia, June 15; 45(6):584-588, 1989.
44I. Yammamoto, M. Takahashi, T. Suzuki, H. Seino, H. Mori, Antitumour Effect of Seaweeds, IV: Enhancement of Antitumour Activity by Sulfation of a Crude Fucoidan Fraction from Sargassum Kjellmanianum, PMID:6513098, UI:85083654, Microbiological Immunology, 28(3):371-377, 1984.
45I. Sugawara, K. C. Lee, Fucoidan Blocks Macrophage Activation in an Inductive Phase but Promotes Macrophage Activation in an Effector Phase, PMID:6429485, UI:84245215, Biochemistry, March 7; 39(9):2140-2148, 2000.
46G. Brunner, K. Reimbold, A. Meissauer, V. Schirrmacher, L. J. Erkell, Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans Enhance Tumour Cell Invasion In Vitro by Stimulating Plasminogen Activation, PMID:9521847, UI:98189141, Anticancer Research, May-June; 16(A):1213-1218, 1996.
47H. Ito, H. Noda, H. Amano, C. Zhuang, T. Mizuno, Antitumour Activity and Immunological Properties of Marine Algal Polysaccharides, Especially Fucoidan, Prepared from Sargassum Thunbergii of Phæophyceæ, PMID:8297113, UI:94127818, Laryngorhinootologie, May; 70(5):243-249, 1991.
48D. D. Roberts, U. M. Wewer, L. A. Liotta, V. Ginsburg, Laminin-dependent and Laminin-independent Adhesion of Human Melanoma Cells to Sulfatides, PMID:2967105, UI:88223173, Japanese Journal of Experimental Medicine, June; 58(3):145-151, 1988.
49K. Mizumoto, I. Sugawara, W. Ito, T. Kodama, M. Hayami, S. Mori, Sulfated Homopolysaccharides with Immunomodulating Activities are More Potent Anti-HTLV-III Agents than Sulfated Heteropolysaccharides, Cancer Immunological Immunotherapy; 24(1):1-7, 1987.
50S. Hashimoto, K. Nomoto, M. Nagaoka, T. Yokokura, In Vitro and In Vivo Release of Cytostatic Factors from Lactobacillus Casei-elicited Peritoneal Macrophages After Stimulation with Tumour Cells and Immunostimulants, PMID:3102062, UI:87130857, Japanese Journal of Experimental Medicine, August; 54(4):143-151, 1984.
51H. Harada, T. Noro, Y. Kamei, Selective Antitumour Activity In Vitro from Marine Algæ from Japan Coasts, Anticancer Research, May-June; 16(3A):1213-1218, 1996.
52Y. Okai, K. Higashi-Okai, S. Nakamura, Identification of Heterogenous Antimutagenic Activities in the Extract of Edible Brown Seaweeds, Laminaria Japonica (Makonbu) and Undaria Pinnatifida (Wakame) by the Ume Gene Expression System in Salmonella Typhimurium (TA1535/pSK1002), PMID:7692279, UI:94019480, Kitasato Arch Exp Med, September; 60(3):105-121, 1987.
53Lightowler and Davies, Iodine intake and iodine deficiency in vegans as assessed by the duplicate-portion technique and urinary iodine excretion, British Journal of Nutrition, 80:529-535, 1998.
54Remer, Neubert and Manz, Increased risk of iodine deficiency with vegetarian nutrition, British Journal of Nutrition, 81:45-49, 1999.
55Davidsson, Are vegetarians an ‘at risk group’ for iodine deficiency?, British Journal of Nutrition, 81:3-4; 1999.
56Phillips, The elimination of iodine deficiency in the UK: a story of iodization by default, IDD (Iodine Deficiency Disorders) Newsletter, February, 1998.
57Meng and Schindler, Iodine supply in Germany, IDD Newsletter, May, 1998.
58 USA examines its iodine nutrition, IDD Newsletter, November, 1998.
59Valeix, Zarebska, Preziosi, Galan, Pelletier and Hercberg, Iodine deficiency in France, The Lancet, Vol. 353, May 22, 1999.
60Sakhalin Hospital Cardiovascular Centre, Sakhalin Island, Russia, early 1990s.
61T. Nishino, A. Fukuda, T. Nagumo, M. Fujihara, E. Kaji, Inhibition of the Generation of Thrombin and Factor Xa by a Fucoidan from the Brown Seaweed Ecklonia Kurome, PMID:10554083, UI:20019511, Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, October; 34(4):597-603, 1999.
62P. Chauvet, J. G. Bienvenu, J. F. Theoret, J. G. Latour, Y. Merhi, Inhibition of Platelet-neutrophil Interactions by Fuciodan Reduces Adhesion and Vasoconstriction After Acute Arterial Injury by Angioplasty in Pigs, PMID:10511137, UI:99439155, Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, Montreal Heart Institute and University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
63K. Katsuraya, N. Ikushima, N. Takahashi, T. Shoji, H. Nakashima, N. Yamamoto, T. Yoshida, T. Uryu, Synthesis of Sulfated Alkyl Malto- and Laminara-Oligosaccharides With Potent Inhibitory Effects on AIDS Virus Infection, PMID:8062289, UI:94340624, Biophysiological Research Community, November 16; 188(3):1169-1175, 1992.
64Comparative analysis of nutritional profiles are available on request. Health Which, October 1997, 166-7 reported that some fresh water algæ supplements, notably blue-green algæ from Lake Klamath in Oregon, USA, contain small amounts of harmful toxins which can damage the liver and nervous system.
65H. Q. Miao, R. Ishai-Michaeli, T. Peretz, I. Vlodavsky, Laminarin Sulfate Mimics the Effects of Heparin on Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Receptor Binding and Mitogenic Activity, PMID:7650058, UI:95378308, Khim, March; 24(3):211-218, 1998
66S. Alban, J. Kraus, G. Franz, Synthesis of Laminarin Sulfates with Anticoagulant Activity, Department of Pharmacy, University of Regensburg, Fed. Rep. of Germany.
67T. Nishino, G. Yokoyama, K. Dobashi, M. Fujihara, T. Nagumo, Isolation, Purification, and Characterisation of Fucose-containing Sulfated Polysaccharides from the Brown Seaweed Ecklonia Kurome and their Blood-anticoagulant Activities, PMID:2720702, UI:8929063, Developmental Components of Immunology, Winter; 13(1):19-16, 1989.
68R. Paul, J. M. Herbert, J. P. Maffrand, J. Lansen, G. Modat, J. M. Percillo, J. L. Gordon, Inhibition of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation in Culture by Pentosan Polysulphate and Related Compounds, PMID:2442829, UI:87320267.
69D. Logeart, S. Prigent-Richard, C. Boisson-Vidal, F. Chaubet, P. Durand, J. Jozefonvicz, D. Letourneur, Fucans, Sulfated Polysaccharides Extracted from Brown Seaweeds, Inhibit Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation. II. Degradation and Molecular Weight Effect, PMID:9438135, UI:98101010, University of Paris.
70Logeart et al., European Journal of Cell Biology, 74, 1997.
71M. Murata, K. Ishihara, H. Saito, Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation Enzyme Activities are Stimulated in Rats Fed the Brown Seaweed Undaria Pinnatifida (Wakame), PMID:9915891, UI:99115844, Laboratory of Lipid Chemistry, Marine Biochemistry Division, National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Japan.
72M. Takuya, D. P. Nelson, L. Marc, L. Schermerhorn, T. Shin’oak, G. Zund, P. R. Hickey, E. J. Neufeld, J. E. Meyer Jr., Blockade of Selectin-Mediated Leukocyte Adhesion Improves Postischemic Function in Lamb Hearts, Cell Research, March 15; 239(2), 301-310, 1998.
73S. L. Fitzpatrick, G. Kassam, A. Manro, C. E. Braat, P. Louie, D. M. Waisman, Fucoidan-dependent Confirmational Changes in Annexin II Tetramer, PMID: 10694379, Annual New York Academy of Sciences, 886:243-248, 1999.
74H. C. A. Vogel, The Nature Doctor, (Manual of Traditional and Complementary Medicine), Mainstream Publishing Company, Edinburgh, 50th Edition, 1989.
75Report of the Institute of Food Science & Technology (UK), London, September 1999.
76Dr Thomas Stuttaford, Is Kelp a Magical Cure for Cellulite? The Times, November 12, 1998.
77David Kinsman, Member, Royal Horticultural Society’s Education Committee, Earth Matters, Science series, Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society, Volume 127, Part 1, January 2002.
78L. Gordin, M.D., Benefits of Modifilan, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2001.
79Congresswoman Diane Watson: statement to the US Congress introducing a Bill to pass the Mercury in Dental Filling Disclosure and Prohibition Act, November 5, 2001, supported by the American Academy of Biological Dentistry.
80J. Tommy, Heavy Metals and Metallothionein, The Autism File, 9/2002, pp6-8 (PO Box 144, Hampton TW12 2FF. Tel 020-8979 2525,,
81S. B Ranger, Nurturing the Foundation of Health, Journal of the Institute for Complementary Medicine, March 2004 (online at: See also S. B. Ranger, Seagreens® and Autistic Spectrum Disorders, The Autism File, pp29-32, Issue 10, July 2002.
82G. R. Dixon, Senior Research Fellow, Department of Bioscience, University of Strathclyde, Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society, Vol. 127, Part 6, p480-1, June 2002
83Dr Chris Skibola, assistant research toxicologist at the School of Public Health, University of California, quoted in Kindred Spirit magazine, July 2007, pp 6, 7.
84University of Liverpool, 2002: a 6-year study analysed the diets of 512 healthy people and 512 with bowel cancer, showing that a high-fibre diet had virtually no effect, but eating plenty of greens improved their condition; the saccharide galactose (in broccoli, for example) was shown to prevent the cancer-causing proteins, lectins, attaching to the lining of the colon; a daily portion of broccoli was shown to decrease the risk of cancer by 46%.
85Dr N. Campbell-McBride, Detoxification for Children with Autism, The Autism File, pp12-17, Issue 10, July 2002., website postings 08.08.2002. More information:, website postings 08.08.2002. The research study may be viewed at More information: Sallie Bernard, Safe Minds, 14 Commerce Drive, PH Cranford, NJ 07016, USA or email her:
88C. Mascarenhas, naturopath, Cambridge, correspondence, 8.02.
89S. Bernard, A. Enayati, T. Binstock, H. Roger, L. Redwood, W. McGinnis, Autism: A Unique Type of Mercury Poisoning, Autism Research Institute, ARC Research, 14 Commerce Drive, Cranford, NJ 07016, V. April 21, 2000 and
90D. Barker, Professor of Clinical Epidemiology, Southampton University, Health & Science / The Week, April 19, 2003.
91F. Watanabe, S. Takenaka, H. Kittaka-Katsura, S. Ebara, E. Miyamoto, Characterisation and Bioavailability of Vitamin B12 compounds from edible algæ, Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 48(5): 325-331, October 2002.
92J-S. Park, A. Kim, E-H. Kim, H-S. Suh, W. C. Choi, Increased Anticancer Activity by the Sulfatged Fucoidan from Korean Brown Seaweeds, Department of Chemistry Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735, Korea Department of Biology, Pusan University, Pusan 609-735, Korea January 31, 2002.
93Japanese study reported in the British Journal of Cancer (The Week, Health & Science section, Issue 443, 17.01.04
94A-B Wirëhn et al., Karolinska University Hospital and Linköping University, reported in the British Medical Journal, Vol. 330, May 7, 2005.
95Independent case study - patient of Dr G. Rhidian BDS(Lond) LFHom(Dent) at the Holistic Dental Centre, Farnham, Surrey - The Times, Body & Soul p.25, October 29, 2005 (
96The Guardian, February 2006, quoted in The Week, 11th February 2006. Tim Lobstein is a director of the European Food Commission.
97D. E. Thomas, The Mineral Depletion of Foods (1940-2002), Nutrition and Health, 17, 85-115, 2003 and research compilation for ‘Overfed and Undernourished’, London Conference on Obesity, April 2005.
98P. Bergner, The Healing Power of Minerals, 1997.
99M. Crawford, Institute of Brain Chemistry and Human Nutrition, London Metropolitan University
100Professor Graham McGregor, University of London, reported in The Times, February 2006 - source The Week, 11th February 2006
101M. Watts in ‘Overfed and Undernourished’, London Conference on Obesity, April 2005 (
102Derrick Z. Jackson in The Boston Globe, quoted in The Week, 23rd January 2006
103‘Junk Moods’ in You Are What You Eat magazine, April 2006
104Changing Diets, Changing Minds: how food affects mental health and behaviour, a joint report of Sustain: the alliance for better food and farming, January 16, 2006, in partnership with the Mental Health Foundation, and Feeding Minds: The Impact of Food on Mental Health, a report of the Mental Health Foundation (MHF), February 2006
105L. Chaitow, Thorsons Guide to Amino Acids, 2002
106T. Maxted-Frost, The Organic Baby Book (How to plan and raise a healthy child), Green Books, 1999.
107 J. Young, M.Psychol, MBAcD, Dip. Epidemiol, ND in The Sunday Mirror (Celebs Problem Page), October 2006.
108J. Tommey, ‘Pure, simple, effective and essential’, The Autism File, Issue 21, Winter 2006.
109H. A. Hopps et al. Marine Algae in Pharmaceutical Science, DeGruyter, New York 1979 xi(309):111.
110A Chemical Cosh, The Ecologist, pp38-39, November 2006.
111J. Lorimer, MA(Hons), DC, MMCA, "Fast Food, Obesity and Ill Health", Positive Health, pp26-27, Issue 129, November 2006
112J. Pearson et al., University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, in Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, November 2006
113R. Gray, The Colon Health Handbook, 12th Revised Edition, Emerald Publishing, 1991 (ISBN 0-9615757-2-7)
114Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 3rd edition, pp. 27-28. J. Jellin, P. Gregory, F. Batz, K. Hitchin, S. Burson, K. Shaver, K, Palacioz. Therapeutic Research Faculty, Stockton, California, 2000 (
115The Ecologist magazine, A Chemical Cosh, November 2006, pp38-39
116J. Wolff, I. L. Chaikoff, Plasma inorganic iodide as a homeostatic regulator of thyroid function, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 174:555-564, 1948 ( The fictitious phenomenon described in their paper became known as the Wolff-Chaikoff effect (117))
117J. Wolff, Iodide goiter and the pharmacologic effects of excess iodide, American Journal of Medicine, 1969, 47:101-124
118G. E. Abraham, The safe and effective implementation of orthoiodosupplementation in medical practice, The Original Internist, 2004, 11(1):17-36
119G. E. Abraham, J. D. Flechas, J. C. Hakala, Orthoiodosupplementation: Iodine sufficiency of the whole human body, The Original Internist, 2002, 9(4):30-41.
120G. E. Abrahams, The concept of orthoiodosupplementation nd its clinical implications, The Original Internist, 2004, 11(2):29-38.
121Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy & Nutrients for the United Kingdom, Department of Health, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office (HMSO). 1991. Manual of Nutrition, UK Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food, HMSO, 1995. Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health, World Health Organization, 1996.
122G. E. Abraham, The Historical Background of the Iodine Project, The Original Internist, Summer 2005, pp57-66.
123G. E. Abraham, Iodine supplementation markedly increases urinary excretion of flouride and bromide, Townsend Letter, 203, 238:108-109.
124F. Vermiglio et al, Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder offspring of mothers exposed to mid-moderate iodine deficiency: A possible novel iodine deficiency disorder in developed countries, J. Clin. Endo. Metab., 2004, 89:6054-6060.
125O. Soldin et al., Newborn thyroxin levels and childhood ADHD, Clinical Biochemistry, 2002, 35:131-136.
126G. E. Abraham, J. D Flechas, J. C. Hakala, Optimum levels of iodine for greatest mental and physical health, The Original Internist, 2002, 90: 5-20.
127D. Brownstein, Iodine: Why You Need it, Why You Can’t Live Without It, 3rd edition, Medical Alternatives Press, West Broomfield, Michigan, 2008 (
128P. P. Zandi et. al., Reduced risk of Alzheimer’s Disease in users of antioxidant vitamin supplements, Arch. Neur., 2004, 61:82-88
129Journal of the National Cancer Institute, May 16, 2007.
130V. G. Cooksley, Seaweed, Stewart, Tabori & Chang, New York 2007, pp42-43.
131M. Y. Arica et al., Alginates bind heavy metals, Journal of Hazardous Material, 2004.
132Reported in Kindred Spirit magazine, July 2007, p. 7
133Blog Right 4 Your Type, website of Doctor Peter D’Adamo (archives reference May 2004) at (16.11.07)
134A. Rowe, A. R. Berendt, K. Marsh, C. I. Newbold, Plasmodium falciparum: a family of suphated glycoconjugates disrupts erythrocyte rosettes, Exp. Parasitology, 1994, 79:506-516.
135C. Granert, J. Raud, X. Xie, et al., Inhibition of leukocyte rolling with polysaccharide fucoidin prevents pleocytosis in experimental meningitis in the rabbit, J. Clinical Invest, 1994, 93:929-936.
136M. Stromqvist, P. Falk, S. Bergström, et al., Human milk kappa-casein and inhibition of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to human gastrix mucosa, J. Paediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr., 1995, 21:288-296.
137M. T. Criado, C. M. Ferreiros, Toxicity of an algal mucopolysaccharide for Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis strains, Rev. Esp. Fisiol., 1984, 40:227-230.
138M. T. Criado, C. M. Ferreiros, Selective interaction of a Fucus vesiculosus lectin-like mucopolysaccharide with several Candida species, Ann. Microbiol. (Paris), 1983, 134A:194-154.
139T. S. Zapopozhets, N. N. Besednova, I. N. Loenka, Antibacterial and immunomodulating activity of fucoidan, Antibiot. Khimioter, 1995, 40:9-13 (Russian language).
140H. Itoh, H. Noda, H. Amano, et al., Antitumour activity and immunological properties of marine algal polysaccharides, especially fucoidan, prepared from Sargassum thunbergii of Phaeophyceae, Anticancer Research, 1993, 13:2045-2052.
141M. M. Teixeira, P. G. Hellewell, The effect of the selectin binding polysaccharide fucoidin on eosinophil recruitment in vivo, British Journal of Pharmacology, 1997, 120:1059-1066.
142M. Baba, R. Snoeck, R. Pauweis, E. de Clercq, Sulfated polysaccharides are potent and selective inhibitors of various enveloped viruses, including herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and human immunodeficiency virus, Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy, 1988, 32:1742-1745.
143S. Soeda, S. Ishida, H. Shimeno, A. Nagamatsu, Inhibitory effect of oversulfated fucoidan on invasion through reconstituted basement membrane by murine Lewis lung carcinoma, Japanese Journal of Cancer Research, 1994, 85:1144-1150.
144M. Ia. Rozkin, M. N. Levina, V. S. Efimov, A. I. Usov, Comparative study of the anticoagulant activity of sulfated polysaccharides from marine brown algae, Farmakol. Toksikol., 1988, 51:63-68 (Russian language).
145J. Durig, T. Bruhn, K. H. Zurborn, et. al., Anticoagulant fucoidan fractions from Fucus vesiculosus induce platelet activation in vitro, Thrombosis Research, 1997, 85:479-491.
146RSSL Science with Service, Should salt no longer be regarded as safe?, Food e-News, November 2007, Edition 363:07-14
147British Society for Nutritional Medicine, London 1984
148P. Nestel, R. Nalubola, (USAID Micronutrient Global Leadership Project), Food Based Approaches to Improving Micronutrient Status in Developing Countries, The International Review of Food Science and Technology, International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST), November 2003
149C. Bertini, Tackling the Double Burden of Malnutrition: A Global Agenda, 33rd Session of the UN Standing Committee of Nutrition, Geneva, 2006
150W. H. R. Shaw, Studies in biogeo-chemistry, Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 19:207-215, 1960
151F. H. Nielsen, Evolutionary events culminating in specific minerals becoming essential for life, European Journal of Nutrition, Steinkopff Verlag, Vol. 39:62-66, Number 2, 2000
152F. H. Nielsen, Other trace elements, in E. E. Ziegler, L. J. Filer Jr. (Eds), Present Knowledge in Nutrition, ILSI, Washington, pp. 353-373, 1996
153H. A. Schroeder, The Trace Elements and Man, Devin Adair, Old Greenwich, Connecticut, 1978
154A. M. Reichlmayr-Lais, Lead, in B. L. O’Dell, R. A. Sunde (Eds), Handbook of Nutritionally Essential Mineral Elements, Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 479-492
155F. H. Nielsen, Nutrition, trace eelements, in R. Dulbecco (Ed), Encyclopedia of Human Biology, 2nd Ed., Academic Press, San Diego, Vol. 6, pp. 373-383
156F. H. Nielsen, The importance of making dietary recommendations for elements designated as nutrritionally beneficial, pharmacologically beneficial, or conditionally essential, Journal of Trace Element Experimental Medicine, 13:113-129
157F. H. Nielsen, Ultratrace elements in nutrition: current knowledge and speculation, Journal of Trace Element Experimental Medicine, 11:251-274
158S. Surey-Gent & G. Morris, Seaweed, A User’s Guide, Whittet Books, 1987
159Consumer research, The Guardian newspaper, November 2007
160J. Philpott, Seaweed: Nature’s Secret for a Long and Healthy Life?, The Nutrition Practitioner, Winter 2006
161J. S. Garrow, W. P. T. James, Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Churchill Livingstone, 1993
162P. Burtin, Nutritional Value of Seaweeds, Electronic Journal of Environmental Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2 (4), 498-503
163C. Wade, Health Secrets of the Orient, Prentice Hall, 1973
164J. Teas, J. R. Hebert, J. H. Fitton, P. V. Zimba, Algae - a poor man’s HAART?, Medical Hypothesies, 62:507-510, 2004
165S. Sato, N. Yoshinuma, K. Ito, T. Tokumoto, T. Takiguchi, Y. Suzuki, S. Murai, The inhibitory effect of funoran and eucalyptus extract-containing chewing gum on plaque formation, Journal of Oral Sciences, 40:115-117, 1998
166M. Nagaoka, H. Shibata, I. Kimura-Takagi, S. Hashimoto, R. Aiyama, S. Ueyama, T. Yokokura, Anti-ulcer effects and biological activities of polysaccharides from marine algae, Biofactors, 12:267-274, 2000
167D. J. Shaeffer, V. S. Krylov, Anti-HIV activity of extracts and compounds from algae and cyanobacteria, Ecotoxicological Environmental Safety, 45:208-227, 2000
168C. A. Pujol, J. M. Estervez, M. J. Carlucci, M. Ciancia, A. S. Cerezo, E. B. Damonte, Novel DL-galactan hybrids from the red seaweed Gymnogongrus torulosus are potent inhibitors of herpes simplex virus and dengue virus, Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy, 13:83-89, 2002
169J. B. Hudson, J. H. Kim, M. K. Lee, R. DeWreede, J. K. Hong, Antiviral compounds in extracts of Korean seaweeds, Applied Phycology, 10:427-434, 1999
170N. M. Ponce, C. A. Pujol, E. B. Damonte, M. L. Flores, C. A. Storz, Fucoidans from the brown seaweed Adenocystis utricularis: extraction methods, antiviral activity and structural studies, Carbohydr. Res. 338:153-165, 2003
171M. Romanos, M. J. Andrada-Serpa, S. dos Ribeiro, Y. Yoneshigue-Valentin, S. S. Costa, M. D. Wigg, Inhibitory effect of extracts of Brazilian marine algae on human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-induced syncytium formation in vitro, Cancer Invest. 20:46-54, 2002
172M. Witvrouw, E. De Clercq, Sulfated polysaccharides extracted from sea algae as potential antiviral drugs, General Pharmacology, 29:497-511, 1997
173L. Zeitlin, K. J. Whaley, Microbiocides for preventing transmission of genital herpes, Herpes, 9:4-9, 2002
174I. Suguwara, S. Ishizaka, G. Moller, Carrageenans, highly sulphated polysaccharides and macrophage-toxic agents: newly found human T-lymphocyte mitogens, Immunobiology, 163:527-538, 1982
175M. S. Matsui, N. Muizzuddin, S. Arad, K. Marenus, Sulphated polysaccharides from red microalgae have antiinflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo, Applied Biochem. Biotechnol. 104:13-22, 2003
176Q. Zhang, Z. Li, Z. Xu, X. Niu, H. Zhang, Effects of fucoidan on chronic renal failure in rats, Planta Med. 69:537-541, 2003
177A. Bocanegra, A. Nieto, B. Blas, F. J. Sanchez-Muniz, Diets containing a high percentage of nori or kombu algae are well accepted and efficiently utilised by growing rats but induce different degrees of histological changes in the liver and bowel, Food Chemistry and Toxicology, 41:1473-1480, 2003
178R. Pratt, H. Mautner, G. M. Gardner, Y. Sha, J. Dufrenoy, Report on antibiotic activity of seaweed extracts, Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, XL(11): 575-579, 1951
179Y. Aisa, Y. Miyakawa, T. Nakazato, H. Shibata, K. Saito, Y. Ikeda, M. Kizaki, Fucoidan extracted from Cladosiphon okamuranus Tokida induces apoptosis of human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1-infected T-cell lines and primary adult T-cell leukaemia cells, Nutr. Cance, 52(2):189-201, 2005
180Tom Isaacs BSc(Hons), MRICS, 2006 Charity Personality of the Year, co-founder of The Cure Parkinson’s Trust, UK ( in Parkinson’s Disease, redcucing symptoms with nutrition and drugs, G. Leader, L. Leader, Denor Press, 2006
181A. Y. Finlay, Measure of the effect of adult devere atopic aczema on quality of life, Jpournal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, Vol. 7(2):149-154. 1996
182P-J. Park, F. Shahidi, Y-J. Jeon, Antioxidant activities of enzymatic extracts from brown seaweeds, Vol. 11(1):15-27, 2004
183C. Charman, H. Williams, The use of corticosteroids and corticosteroid phobia in atopic dermatitis, Clinics in Dermatology, 21(3):193-200, 2003
184M. L. Pacor et al, Eczema and food allergy in the adult, Recenti Progressi in Medicina 81(3):139-141, 1990
185R. Roubenoff, N. Scrimshaw, P. Shetty et al, Report of the IDECG Working Group on the role of lifestyle including nutrition for the health of the elderly, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 54:S164-5, 2000
186J. Lunn, Senior Nutrition Scientist, British Nutrition Foundation quoting Horwarth (2002) in Network Health Dieticians, p. 26, Issue 36, July 2008
187S. Ranger, Feeding the foundation of health, Star & Furrow, Journal of the Biodynamic Agricultural Association, pp. 10-14, Issue 109: 1472-4634, Summer 2008
188M. Kushi, A. Jack, The Macrobiotic Path to Total Health, Ballantine Books, pp. 9-11, 2003
189S. Ranger, Oceans fo goodness in sea greens, British Naturopathic Journal, pp10-13, Vol. 22, No. 3, November 2005
190A. C. Fairclough, D. E. Cliffe, The potential for the use of Seagreens® wild wrack seaweed as a bacteriostat and its effect on shelf-life, Food Innovation, Sheffield Hallam University, March 2008
191S. Ranger, Feeding the foundation of health, Star & Furrow, Journal of the Biodynamic Agricultural Association, p. 13, Issue 109: 1472-4634, Summer 2008
192D. Miller Jr., Iodine - high dose intake cuts breast cancer and hypothyroid-related illnesses, Caduceus, issue 75, August 2008
193J. Plant, J.Stephenson, Beating Stress, Anxiety and Depression, reviewed by The Times, July 2008 at, praised by former BMA President Lord Walton of Detchant in Science.
194What Doctors Don’t Tell You, Vol. 19, no. 2, p. 18, May 2008
195Townsend Lett, 287: 128-132, 2007
196Explore!, Vol. 16, no. 6, 2007
197J. Zhejiang University Science Bulletin, Vol. 6, pp171-174, 2005
198Acupuncture Electrotherapy Research, Vol. 20, pp195-229, 1995 and Vol. 21, pp. 133-60, 1996
199Research report of a 3-year multicenre study at Kyumgpook National University in Daegu, Korea in Diabetes Care, Vol. 29: 1638-1644, 2006
200J. R. Paxman, J. C. Richardson, P. W. Dettmar, B. M. Corfe, Alginate reduces the increased uptake of cholesterol and glucose in overweight male subjects: a pilot study, Nutrtiion Research 28: 501-505, May 2008 (Science Direct /
201J. R. Paxman, J. C. Richardson, P. W. Dettmar, B. M. Corfe, Daily ingestion of alginate reduces energy intake in free-living subjects, Appetite 51: 713-719, June 2008 (Science Direct /
202Vitamin B3 may be an aid in Alzheimer’s, University of California at Irvine, USA, Journal of Neuroscience, November 2008 (BBC News /
203D. W. Miller, Jr., Iodine in Health and Civil Defense, 24th Annual Meeting of Doctors for Disaster Preparedness in Portland, Oregon, August 6, 2006 (
204D. W. Miller, Jr., High dose iodine intake cuts breast cancer and hypothyroid-related illnesses, Caduceus, Issue 75, Summer 2008 (
205R. Winkler, S. Griebenow, W. Wonisch, Effect of iodine on total antioxidant status of human serum, Cell Biochemical Function, Vol. 18(2):143-146, June 2000
206G. E. Abraham, Historical background to the Iodine Project, The Original Internist, 12:(2) 57-66, 2005
207F. Schuppert et al, In vivo and in vitro evidence for iodide regulation of major histocompatability complex class I and class II expression in Graves’ Disease, Journal Clinical Endocrinol Metab 81(10):3622-3628, 1996
208S. Venturi, Italy: Beneficial effects on oral health and cavity reduction (and many other reports) at (select Notizie: top news, search on iodio), 31 October 2002
210A. Shrivastava et al, Molecular iodine induces Caspase-independent apoptosis in human breast carcionoma cells involving the mitochondria-mediated pathway, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 14;281(28):19762-19771, July 2006
211L. Zhang et al, Nonradioactive iodide effectively induces apoptosis in genetically modified lung cancer cells, Cancer Research, 63(16):5065-5072, 15 August 2003
212M. Kushi, A. Jack, The Macrobiotic Path to Total Health, Ballantine Books / Random House Publishing, 2003
213Prof. D. Smith, University of Oxford, published in Neurology, September 2008 ((BBC News /
214M-F Muller, Colloidal Minerals and Trace Elements, Healing Arts Press, 2002
215J. Tommey, The Gut Brain Link in Autism, reporting a seminar hosted by nutrtiionist Michael Ash, The Autism File, issue Winter 2007 (
216F. Drennan, Kelp is at hand, The Ecologist, July/August 2008 (
217D. E. Thomas, Chapeter on Mental health and mineral pepletion in Nutrition and Mental Health: a handbook, Ed. Martina Watts, Pavilion Publishing (Brighton) Ltd, 2008 (
218K. Maiyashita et al., American Chemical Society’s 232nd National Meeting & Exposition, San Francisco, September 10-14, 2006 (
219Seaweed. It’s Good For Your Health!, Headlines, Food Innovation Project, Autumn 2008 and related consumer media: ( (
220Dr N. Campbell-McBride, MD, MMedSci(neurology), MMedSci(nutrition), Put Your Heart in Your Mouth: natural treatment in cardiovascular disease, Medinform, 2007
221M. D. Althuis, J. M. Dozier, W. F. Anderson, S. S. Devesa, L. A. Brinton, Global trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality 1973-1997, International Journal of Epidemiology 34:405-412, 2005
222The Great Thyroid Debate, Foods Matter, October 2006 (+44-(0)20-7722 2866 or
223Practitioner correspondence from C. Mascarenhas ( 02.03.2009
224T. Atkinson, Napiers History of Herbal Healing Ancient & Modern, Luath Press, p. 256, 2007
225D. Brownstein, Salt - Your Way To Health, Medical Alternative Press, p. 120-122, 2006
226G. Abraham, Iodine supplementation markedly increases urinary excretion of flouride and bromine, Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, May 2003
227S. Pavalka, Effect of high bromine levels in the organism on the biological half-life of iodine in the rat, Biological Trace Element Research, 82 (1-3):133, 2001
228PDSA study reported p.20 in the Daily Mail, February 17, 2010
229A-M Mayer, Historical Changes in the Mineral Co0ntent of Fruits and Vegetables, British Food Journal, 1997
230Data from DEFRA cited by Richard Thornton-Smith, Food Quality and Human Health, Soil Association Review, August 2001
231W. E. Cook, Foodwise (Understanding What We Eat and How It Affects Us): The story of human nutrition, Clairview Books, 2003
232V. L. Clifton et al., The impact of iodine supplementation and bread fortification on urinary iodine concentrations in a mildly iodine deficient population of pregnant women in South Australia, Nutrition Journal 12:32, 2013
233B. S. Hetzel, Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) and their eradication, Lancet 2:1126-1129, 1983
234World Health Organisation (WHO) Ual, Iodine status worldwide: WHO global database on iodine deficiency, WHO Geneva, 2004
235S. C. Bath et al., Effect of inadequate iodine status in UK pregnant women on cognitive outcomes in their children: results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), The Lancet (early online publication) 22 May 2013
236BBC News Health (James Gallagher, Health and Science reporter), Iodine deficiency 'may lower UK children's IQ', May 22, 2013